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First, the area is complex and rapidly changing. Including the sup- ply chain in modeling is difficult, and new channels such as e-commerce are not easy to incorporate. The num- ber and variety of stakeholders in urban freight adds to modeling complexity, as does the speed of technology development and adoption. The second category is a lack or limitation of data, such as on vans or small trucks as opposed to large trucks and on vehicle flows as opposed to product and goods flows.
Comparisons are also difficult because of variations in definitions or in national requirements for data collection. The third category of challenge is due to gaps in communication between practitioners and researchers and between researchers involved in urban freight modeling and those engaged primarily in policy and operations.
The authors also commented on U. The nature of urban areas has clearly influenced European urban freight research. The idea of transferability is important in Europe, and there has been a recent strong emphasis on multinational coop- eration in EU funding programs. The same cannot be said of U.
Data collection efforts also vary significantly between the United States and Europe.
Suggestions for Research Finally, the authors presented the following list of rec- ommendations:. Conduct a more systematic review of the state of modeling and analytical work with joint support from the United States and Europe; 2. Organize a showcase for examples in which the ana- lytical and policy gap has been overcome or narrowed ; 4. Consider a journal special issue built around the workshop addressing the questions raised by the papers and presentations.
Dablanc explained that the coauthors looked at the institutional context as well as the legal context when making their ranking. This is an ongoing process. Giuliano answered that the price needs to be high to achieve a material change in trucking behavior. So adjustments in behavior did happen as a result of pricing. A second example is the issue of relative pric- ing inelasticities of different markets, such as between trucking compared with passenger transport.
Imposing one price globally across an urban area would deter more car traffic than truck traffic. A pricing scenario that prices everyone on a road would bring some road congestion improvements. Ken Button agreed with Giuliano that pricing strate- gies do work. He noted that trucks will pay more than passenger cars because trucks need to enter the city.
Pas- sengers going to the gym or other leisure activity may opt to go elsewhere if the road fee is too high, because the trip is less important and they have other options.
Terrorism, Media, and the Ethics of Fiction: Transatlantic Perspectives on Don DeLillo, 1st edition
The traffic coming into Washington, D. Reducing the number of people doing leisure activities would reduce traffic congestion. Button added that he wrote a book in on this topic, and those models still apply. The acronyms have changed, but the models are the same. Environmental issues have become more important now than in the s due to global warming, but even the s had pollution. Button also felt it important to consider pas- senger traffic alongside urban freight traffic, not sepa- rately. Freight terminals in urban areas can generate significant employment and hence commuting trips.
He also noted that some of the worst congestion is found around shopping malls. The big issue was not the spe- cific strategy or technique, he said, but the politics; TRB research has not examined the political question much.
A transatlantic perspective on 20 emerging issues in biological engineering
On the nature of decision making in cities, he added that there are many solutions, but it is not clear which ones to implement or whether several strategies should be implemented together. Crainic congratulated the authors of both white papers for creating such useful papers. He said that the papers examined many initiatives, but that they examined the initiatives separately. In his view, it was important to have a portfolio of initiatives that could be implemented together rather than separately. Dablanc agreed about the need for a comprehensive agenda. It is difficult to manage urban freight because freight demand has increased tremendously.
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Michel Savy agreed with Dablanc that urban freight flows were growing. He also pointed out that freight hubs result in more remote facilities away from city cen- ters. Thus, the need to manage urban freight is stronger than before.
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Currently, experiments have been at the city level, but an industry-scale solution is lacking. Savy noted that Japan may offer some models for how to regulate and optimize the use of public space. McKinnon echoed the idea of looking at examples from Japan. Chris Kozak said that the white papers nailed the issues. He pointed out that although cities are trying to encour- age overnight deliveries and off-peak activity to reduce congestion, other legislation such as the hours-of-service restrictions that will take effect in July are at cross pur- poses because they restrict schedules.
Wal-Mart is part- nering with carrier J. Hunt to try to counter the new hours-of-service regulation, but that partnership is com- ing too late and the legislation will have a large, negative impact on productivity. Regions are now looking at pricing mechanisms not because of political will, but because they need to find funding, and these charging schemes would provide funding. Thus, the funding motivations of cities provide an opportunity to implement policies related to urban freight manage- ment.
She agreed that hours-of-service legislation adds a complexity that is significant for schedule planning. Giuliano added that hours-of-service legislation is an example of what happens when systemwide effects are not considered. She urged that researchers simulate what inefficiencies might be brought about by a change like hours of service. If researchers could quantify the impacts of proposed changes, better policy discussions could take place.
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